Pengaruh Kedalaman Muka Air dan Amelioran terhadap Produktivitas Kedelai di Lahan Sulfat Masam Effects of Water Depth and Ameliorant to Soybean Productivity on Acid Sulphate Soil

Alce Ilona Noyaa, Munif Ghulamahdi, Didy Sopandie, Atang Sutandi, Maya Melati
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Abstract

Oksidasi pirit di lahan sulfat masam menyebabkan pH tanah turun sehingga meningkatkan kelarutan aluminium dan besi. Budidaya jenuh air mempertahankan kedalaman muka air tanah dan membuat lapisan di bawahnya jenuh. Penelitian bertujuan menentukan pengaruh kedalaman muka air tanah dan ameliorasi terhadap beberapa sifat kimia tanah dan produktivitas kedelai. Penelitian dilaksanakan di lahan sulfat masam Desa Banyu Urip Kecamatan Tanjung Lago Kabupaten Banyuasin, Propinsi Sumatera Selatan, sejak Juni sampai Oktober 2012. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan petak-petak terpisah
dengan 3 ulangan. Faktor utama adalah tinggi air dalam parit 10 cm dan 20 cm di bawah permukaan tanah dengan pembanding budidaya kering. Faktor kedua adalah amelioran : tanpa amelioran, kapur dan abu jerami. Faktor ketiga adalah genotipe Anjasmoro, Yellow Biloxi, Tanggamus dan Lawit. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan interaksi kedalaman muka air dan ameliorasi meningkatkan pH tanah menjadi 4,67; mempertahankan kadar P tanah 10,70 ppm; meningkatkan kadar K, Ca dan Mg tanah menjadi 1,15; 11,70 dan 6,90 me/100 g. Kadar Fe tanah turun menjadi 12,14 ppm sedangkan kadar Al dan kejenuhan Al
turun menjadi 2,06 ppm dan 10,36 persen. Tanggamus memiliki produktivitas tertinggi (2,47 t/ha) karena memiliki lebih banyak jumlah daun (31,5), jumlah cabang (4,5 - 5,3), jumlah buku produktif (27,67) dan jumlah polong isi (80,9).

Pyrite oxidation causes the soil pH drops, thus increasing the solubility of aluminium and iron. Saturated soil culture maintains the water depth and makes the soil below saturated. This study aims to determine the effects of soil water depth and amelioration on soil chemical properties and soybean productivity. The experiment is conducted on acid sulphate soil Banyu Urip, South Sumatera Province, from June until October 2012. The experiment is arranged in a split split plot design with three replications. The main factor is water depth in the furrow consisted of 10 and 20 cm under soil surface. The second factor is ameliorant: without ameliorant, lime and straw ash. The third factors are genotypes: Anjasmoro, Yellow Biloxi, Tanggamus and Lawit. The results show that interaction of water depth and amelioration increase soil pH to 4.67, maintain soil P at 10.70 ppm and increase soil K, Ca and Mg to 1.15, 11.70 and 6.90 me/100 g. The soil Fe decrease to 12.14 ppm, whereas Al and Al saturated decrease to 2.06 ppm and 10.36 percent, respectively. Tanggamus has the highest productivity (2.47 t/ha), supported by higher number of leaves (31.5), branches (4.5 - 5.3), productive nodes (27.67) and filled pods (80.9.)

Keywords

pyrite; soybean; lime; straw ash

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