Evaluasi Nilai Gizi Protein Tepung Tempe yang Terbuat dari Varietas Kedelai Impor dan Lokal Evaluation on Protein Nutritional Value of Tempe Flour Made from Imported and Local Soybean Varieties

Made Astawan, Mursyid Mursyid, Deddy Muchtadi, Tutik Wresdiyati, Siti Harnina Bintari, Maryani Suwarno

Abstract


Tempe merupakan produk olahan fermentasi kedelai asli Indonesia. Telah diketahui bahwa kandungan gizi tempe lebih baik dibandingkan kedelai yang tidak difermentasi. Masalah utama tempe adalah umur simpan yang relatif rendah. Salah satu alternatif pengolahan tempe adalah tepung tempe. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi kualitas protein tepung tempe yang terbuat dari kedelai impor dan lokal. Penelitian ini menggunakan tikus putih Sprague-Dawley sebagai hewan model. Tikus dibagi 4 kelompok berdasarkan sumber protein dalam ransum, yaitu tepung tempe kedelai impor Genetically Modified Organism (GMO)/hasil rekayasa genetika, tepung tempe kedelai impor non-GMO, tepung tempe kedelai lokal Grobogan, dan kasein sebagai kontrol. Parameter kualitas protein diukur berdasarkan metode pertumbuhan dan metode keseimbangan nitrogen. Hasil analisis menunjukkan tidak terdapat perbedaan yang nyata pada nilai food convertion efficiency (FCE), protein efficiency ratio (PER), dan net protein ratio (NPR) dari semua jenis tepung tempe. Nilai true protein digestibility (TPD) tepung tempe kedelai grobogan dan non-GMO tidak berbeda nyata, namun nyata lebih tinggi dari tepung tempe kedelai GMO, dan lebih rendah dari kasein. Tidak terdapat perbedaan yang nyata pada nilai biological value (BV) dan net protein utilization (NPU) semua sampel. Dari penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa secara umum nilai gizi protein tepung tempe kedelai lokal Grobogan tidak berbeda dengan tepung tempe kedelai impor non-GMO.

Tempe is a fermented soybean product from Indonesia. It has been known that nutritional values of tempe are better than unfermented soybean. The main problem of tempe product is its short shelf life. An alternative way to solve this problem is tempe flour. The objective of this research was to evaluate the protein nutritional quality of tempe flours made from imported and local soybeans. This research used albino Sprague-Dawley rats as an animal model. The rats were divided into 4 groups based on protein source of the diet, namely: tempe flour of imported Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) soybean, tempe flour of imported non-GMO soybean, tempe flour of local Grobogan soybean, and casein as a control. Protein nutritional parameters were observed based on growth of rats and nitrogen balance methods. The results showed that there were no significant different of food conversion efficiency (FCE), protein efficiency ratio (PER), and net protein ratio (NPR) values from all of tempe flours. True protein digestibility (TPD) value of Grobogan and non-GMO tempe flours was not different, but higher than GMO soybean tempe flour, and lower than casein. There were no significant different of biological value (BV) and net protein utilization (NPU) values from all samples. This research concluded that generally the nutritional quality of protein of tempe flour from local Grobogan soybean tempe flour was not different from the protein quality of import non-GMOZT.

 


Keywords


local soybean; import soybean; tempe flour; protein nutritional quality

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