Peluang Aplikasi Mikroenkapsulat Vitamin A Dan Zat Besi Sebagai Fortifikan (The Chance of Aplication Microencapsulat Vitamin A and Iron as Fortificants)

Sugiyono Sugiyono, Windi Asterini, Endang Prangdimurti
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Abstract

Vitamin A dan zat besi termasuk salah satu zat gizi mikro yang dibutuhkan oleh tubuh. Kekurangan asupan dan absorbsi zat gizi mikro dapat mengakibatkan gangguan pada kesehatan, pertumbuhan, dan fungsi lainnya di dalam tubuh. Program fortifikasi merupakan salah satu cara yang dilakukan oleh pemerintah untuk mengatasi masalah defisiensi vitamin A dan zat besi. Kedua mikronutrien ini sering digunakan menjadi fortifikan akan tetapi masing-masing senyawa ini memiliki reaksi negatif di dalam bahan pangan. Vitamin A merupakan senyawa yang rentan terhadap suhu tinggi, cahaya dan udara (oksigen), sedangkan zat besi dapat menghasilkan efek negatif pada sensori (bau dan warna) pangan fortifikasi. Perlindungan fortifikan dari pengaruh lingkungan sangat diperlukan untuk mendukung keberhasilan program fortifikasi. Salah satu caranya ialah dengan menggunakan teknologi enkapsulasi. Berbagai penelitian menunjukkan bahwa fortifikasi dengan menggunakan teknik mikroenkapsulasi menghasilkan fortifikasi yang lebih stabil, tidak merubah bahan pangan pembawa fortifikan secara fisik dan kimia. Oleh karena itu pembuatan mikroenkapsulasi fortifikan dinilai lebih efisien dan efektif dalam mengatasi masalah defisiensi zat gizi mikro.

Vitamin A and iron are essential micronutrients needed by the body. Deficiency of intake and absorption of micronutrients can lead to disturbances in health, growth and other functions in the body. Fortification is one of the government programs to cope with the deficiency of vitamin A and iron. Both compounds are often used as fortificants, but their present promotes undesirable reaction in foodstuffs. Vitamin A is susceptible to high temperature, light and air (oxygen), while iron can result in detrimental effects on the color and smell. Therefore, the protection of fortificants against environmental effect in food system is highly required, and encapsulation is a promising technique. Previous studies showed that microencapsulation technique produced more stable compounds and unchanged chemical and physical characteristics of fortified food. For this reason, microencapsulation in fortified food is considered as efficient and effective way in addressing micronutrient deficiencies.

 


Keywords

Deficiency; Fortification; Iron; Microencapsulation; Vitamin A

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