Karakterisasi dan Kekerabatan 23 Genotip Jawawut (Setaria italica L. Beauv) yang Ditanam Tumpangsari dengan Ubi Jalar Berdasarkan Karakter (Agromorfologi Characterization and Relationship of 23 Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L. Beauv) Genotypes Intercropped With Sweet Potato Based on Agromorphological Traits)

Warid Ali Qosim, Alan Randall, Yuyun Yuwariah, Anne Nuraini, Tati Nurmala, Aep Wawan Irwan
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Abstract

Diversifikasi pangan lokal merupakan salah satu upaya untuk mengantisipasi krisis pangan akibat pertambahan jumlah penduduk di Indonesia setiap tahun. Produksi dan pengembangan jawawut di Indonesia masih tergolong rendah karena terbatas oleh ketersediaan lahan. Tumpangsari merupakan praktek pertanian berkelanjutan dan alternatif dalam pengembangan jawawut di Indonesia. Namun, sistem tanam tumpangsari dapat menyebabkan kompetisi antar tanaman. Strategi untuk mengurangi tingkat kompetisi antar tanaman dapat dilakukan dengan penanaman dua jenis tanaman yang mempunyai morfologi, perakaran dan umur panen yang berbeda. Budidaya jawawut dan ubi jalar tidak membutuhkan irigasi. Berdasarkan informasi tersebut, jawawut dan ubi jalar dapat dibudidayakan secara tumpangsari. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui karakter agromorfologi yang memberikan kontribusi yang nyata terhadap keragaman 23 genotip jawawut yang ditanam secara tumpangsari dengan ubi jalar. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan koefisien ketidakmiripan yang terbentuk di antara 23 genotip jawawut yang diamati karakter agromorfologinya yaitu berkisar antara 0,24 - 2,34, dan membagi dua klaster utama, yaitu klaster A dan B. Karakter tinggi tanaman 14 hst, 28 hst, 42 hst dan 56 hst, jumlah daun 14 hst dan 42 hst, indeks luas daun 49 hst dan umur panen merupakan karakter yang memberikan kontribusi terhadap keragaman paling tinggi yaitu sebesar 46,82 persen.

Local food diversification is one of attempt to anticipate food crisis due to population growth in Indonesia every year. Production and development of millet in Indonesia is still relatively low because it is limited by the availability of land. Intercropping is sustainable and alternative farming practices in the development of millet in Indonesia. However, intercropping system may be occur competition between plants. Strategies to reduce the level of competition between plants by planting two types of plants which have different morphology, root and harvesting time. Cultivation of millet and sweet potatoes do not require irrigation. Based on the information millet and sweet potatoes can be cultivated intercropped. The purpose of this study was to determine the agromorplogical traits which make a significant contribution to the diversity of 23 genotypes of millet were planted with sweet potatoes. Result showed that dissimilarity coefficient between 23 genotypes of millet were 0,24 to 2,34, and split two main clusters, cluster A and B. Plant height at 14 DAP, 28 DAP, 42 and 56 DAP, leaf number at 14 DAP and 42 DAP, leaf area index at 49 DAP and harvesting time were the highest character which contributes to the diversity, 46,82 percent.

 

Keywords

characterization; relationship; foxtail millet; intercropping; agromorphology.

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