Analisis Pengambilan Keputusan Manajemen Rantai Pasok Bisnis Komoditi dan Produk Pertanian

Marimin Marimin, Alim Setiawan Slamet
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Abstract

Manajemen rantai pasok bisnis komoditi dan produk pertanian berbeda dengan manajemen rantai pasok bisnis komoditi non-pertanian, karena: (i) komoditi dan produk pertanian bersifat mudah rusak, (ii) proses penanaman, pertumbuhan dan pemanenan tergantung pada iklim dan musim, (iii) hasil panen memiliki bentuk dan ukuran yang bervariasi, (iv) komoditi dan produk pertanian bersifat kamba sehingga produk pertanian sulit untuk ditangani. Seluruh faktor tersebut harus dipertimbangkan dalam desain manajemen rantai pasok komoditi dan produk pertanian guna mendapatkan sistem rantai pasok yang komprehensif, efektif, efisien, responsif dan berkelanjutan. Manajemen rantai pasok bisnis komoditi dan produk pertanian bersifat kompleks, probabilistik dan dinamis. Konsekuensinya, faktor yang perlu dipertimbangkan dalam merancang sistem manajemen rantai pasok-nya bersifat kompleks yang memerlukan dukungan analisis pengambilan keputusan yang handal. Beberapa metode analisis pengambilan keputusan yang dapat digunakan dalam kajian pengembangan manajemen rantai pasok komoditas dan produk pertanian antara lain adalah metode Perbandingan Eksponensial (MPE) untuk pemilihan komoditas unggulan, analisis deskriptif rantai pasok dengan pendekatan Asian Productivity Organization (APO), metode Hayami untuk analisis nilai tambah rantai pasok, metode Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) dan Supply Chain Operation Reference (SCOR) serta Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) untuk analisis pengukuran kinerja manajemen rantai pasok bisnis komoditi dan produk pertanian. Aplikasi teknik dan metode tersebut serta faktor kunci yang mendukung sukses penerapannya berhasil divirifikasi dengan baik pada contoh kasus penilaian kinerja rantai pasok sayuran dataran tinggi.

The implementation of agricultural products business supply chain management has a significant difference with the other products in terms of stochastic and dynamic behavior as a result of some factors such as (i) perishable characteristics (ii) seasonal for cultivation, growth and harvesting (iii) various shape and size on final yield (iv) voluminous. These factors should be considered in designing a comprehensive, effective, efficient, responsive and sustainable agricultural products supply chain management. As a consequence, the decision making involved is becoming more complex than common manufacturing application which are pragmatic, deterministic and static. Some of the decision methods for developing and analysing the agriculture product supply chain management discussed in this paper include Exponential comparison method for prospective products selection, Asian Productivity Organization (APO) approach for agricultural products supply chain management descriptive analysis, Hayami method for added value analysis Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), Supply Chain Operation Reference (SCOR) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) for agricultural product supply chain management performance analysis. The application of those methods and the corresponding key sucess factors in the implementation have been verified in the case of highland vegetable products supply chain management.

 

Keywords

supply chain management; performance analysis; decision analysis; agricultural products; highland vegetables.

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