Analisis Skala Ekonomi Produksi Tebu di Propinsi Lampung

Fitriani Fitriani, Bustanul Arifin, Hanung Ismono
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Abstract

Artikel ini menganalisis skala ekonomi produksi tebu di Propinsi Lampung, dengan fokus pada observasi mendalam tentang pola kemitraan petani tebu dengan Badan Usaha Milik Negara (BUMN) PT. Perkebunan Nusantara (PTPN) VII Bunga Mayang di Kabupaten Lampung Utara dan dengan perusahaan swasta besar PT. Gunung Madu Plantations (GMP) di Kabupaten Lampung Tengah. Studi ini menggunakan analisis usahatani untuk melihat tingkat profitabilitas produksi tebu serta memanfaatkan sifat-sifat khas fungsi produksi Constant Elasticitiy of Substitution (CES) untuk melihat tingkat substitusi dari faktor-faktor produksi yang berpengaruh di daerah studi. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa usahatani tebu di Propinsi Lampung masih menguntungkan, walau pun telah berada pada fase penerimaan hasil yang semakin berkurang. Kemitraan petani dengan PTPN VII Bunga Mayang lebih padat tenaga kerja dibanding kemitraan dengan PT GMP, walaupun dalam jangka panjang tidak berbeda secara signifikan. Kebijakan yang mampu meningkatkan skala ekonomi produksi tebu akan meningkatkan pendapatan petani dan berkontribusi pada pengembangan wilayah di Lampung.

The objective of this study is to analyze the economic scale of sugarcane production in the Province of Lampung. Field surveys are conducted in August-September 2009, covering the production centers in the districts of North Lampung and Central Lampung. More in-depth observations are focused to examine the partnership program between sugarcane farmers and the State-Owned Enterprise (SOE) of PTPN VII Bunga Mayang in North Lampung and private estate of PT Gunung Madu Plantation (PT GMP) in Central Lampung. Standard farm economic analysis is employed to examine the profitability of sugarcane farming in the study sites. The constant elasticity of substitution (CES) production function is adapted to analyze the economic scale of the sugarcane farming in the province. The results show that the sugarcane farming in the study sites is economically profitable, although in the stage of decreasing return to scale; and, although in the long run the difference is not statistically significant, the farmers’ partnership with PTPN VII is more labor intensive than that with private enterprise PT GMP. Any policies to increase the economic scale of sugarcane production would contribute to the welfare of sugarcane farmers and regional development in the province.

 

Keywords

sugarcane farming; Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES) production function; farmers-enterprise partnership; Lampung Province

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