Teknologi Proses Ekstrusi untuk Membuat Beras Analog (Extrusion Process Technology of Analog Rice)

Faleh Setia Budi, Purwiyatno Hariyadi, Slamet Budijanto, Dahrul Syah

Abstract


Tingkat konsumsi beras di Indonesia mencapai angka 139 kg/kapita/tahun, lebih tinggi dari konsumsi rata-rata di Asia Tenggara, sehingga untuk memenuhi kebutuhannya sering dilakukan impor beras. Indonesia memiliki sumber pangan lokal lain seperti jagung, sorgum, ubi kayu, ubi jalar, sagu dan lain-lain. Namun bahan pangan non beras tersebut kurang populer dibandingkan dengan beras. Oleh karena itu, perlu dikembangkan teknologi proses yang potensial untuk mengolah bahan pangan lokal non beras menjadi beras analog. Teknologi ekstrusi merupakan salah satu teknologi yang telah digunakan untuk pembuatan beras analog dengan bahan baku beras patah. Belakangan, teknologi ini juga mulai digunakan untuk pembuatan beras analog dari bahan pangan non beras. Karakteristik beras analog yang mirip dengan beras alami dapat dicapai dengan mengontrol parameter-parameter kritis ekstrusi seperti karakteristik dan komposisi bahan, suhu ekstrusi, kecepatan ulir dan sebagainya. Studi menunjukkan bahwa beras analog bisa dibuat dari bahan pangan non beras. Keberhasilan teknologi ini juga akan memperluas peluang fortifikasi dengan menggunakan beras analog sebagai pembawa zat gizi. seperti protein, vitamin dan mineral, sesuai dengan tujuannya. Makalah ini mengkaji hasil-hasil penelitian pembuatan beras analog dengan teknologi ekstrusi baik dengan menggunakan bahan beras patah maupun bahan non beras yang disertai dengan dan tanpa fortifikasi.

Indonesia rice consumption level is very high and up to 139 kg/capita/year, higher than that of average consumption level in South East Asia, so that import of rice is frequently needed to fill the need of population. Indonesia is actually rich in local food sources other than rice; such as corn, sorghum, cassava, sago, etc. but they are not as popular as rice. Therefore technology for the production of analog rice using the localbased non-rice food sources is needed. Extrusion technology has been used to produce analog rice from broken rice as its raw material. Recently; extrusion technology has also been used to develop analog rice using non-rice food material. The characteristic of analog rice which is similar with the natural rice could be achieved by controlling the critical extrusion parameters, such as the characteristics and composition of raw material, the temperature of extrusion, the speed of screw etc. The success of the analog rice production from the non rice food material will open up opportunities for fortification program using analog rice as a carrier for the nutrient target. This paper reviews the research reports for analog rice production with extrusion technology using variety of raw materials; including broken rice and the non-rice food material, with and without fortification.

 


Keywords


analog rice; non-rice food material; extrusion technology and fortification

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