Beras Coklat Berkecambah (Germinated Brown Rice): Proses Produksi dan Karakteristiknya

Hadi Munarko, Azis Boing Sitanggang, Feri Kusnandar, Slamet Budijanto
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Abstract

Beras coklat diketahui memiliki komponen bioaktif yang bermanfaat bagi kesehatan. Namun, konsumsi beras coklat di masyarakat saat ini memang masih rendah dibandingkan dengan beras putih. Hal ini disebabkan beras coklat memerlukan waktu pemasakan yang cukup lama, memiliki tekstur agak keras, dan berbau yang kurang disukai. Beras coklat berkecambah atau dikenal dengan germinated brown rice (GBR) merupakan beras coklat yang telah mengalami perendaman dan perkecambahan pada kondisi tertentu. Perkecambahan mampu meningkatkan kandungan senyawa bioaktif beras coklat. Salah satu senyawa bioaktif yang dapat meningkat selama perkecambahan adalah senyawa gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). GABA berfungsi sebagai penghambat neurotransmitter di otak yang secara langsung mempengaruhi kepribadian dan manajemen stres. Peningkatan kandungan GABA pada beras coklat berkecambah dapat dilakukan dengan mengoptimalkan kondisi proses perendaman dan perkecambahan seperti suhu, waktu, pH, maupun penambahan senyawa lainnya seperti asam glutamat. Selama proses perkecambahan terjadi perubahan-perubahan biokimia yang diakibatkan oleh aktivitas enzim endogenus yang mengubah komponen makromolekul menjadi komponen yang lebih sederhana. Selain itu, perkecambahan pada kondisi tertentu juga dapat mengakibatkan perubahan fisikokimia GBR. Dengan demikian, perkecambahan juga dapat memperbaiki karakteristik sensori nasi yang dihasilkan, terutama atribut flavor dan tekstur.

Keywords

Beras coklat; beras coklat berkecambah; GABA; perkecambahan

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