Antisipasi terhadap Isu-Isu Baru Keamanan Pangan (The Anticipation of New Issues Food safety)

Ratih Dewanti Hariyadi, Purwiyatno Hariyadi
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Abstract

Kemunculan emerging dan kontaminan baru yang berkaitan dengan keamanan
pangan merupakan isu yang tidak bisa dihindari. E. coli enterohemoragik misalnya,merupakan contoh emerging baru yang menyebabkan kematian dan kerugian ekonomi di Eropa, sedangkan di Cina melamin adalah contoh mutakhir kontaminan pada susu formula bayi yang telah menyebabkan kematian dan kerugian perdagangan di dunia. Paper ini mengulas berbagai potensi emerging dan kontaminan baru yang mungkin muncul dalam sistem pangan. Tujuannya adalah untuk memberikan pemahaman mengenai emerging dan kontaminan baru tersebut sehingga kemunculannya bisa diantisipasi dengan tepat, baik oleh pemerintah emerging pangan maupun konsumen. Penggunaan kerangka kerja analisis risiko merupakan pendekatan logis yang perlu ditempuh oleh pemerintah untuk melahirkan kebijakan dan tindakan keamanan pangan
yang tepat untuk keperluan antisipasi tersebut. Sementara itu, emerging pangan perlu secara cermat mengkaji ulang praktek dan tindakan keamanan pangan, termasuk program dan rencana HACCP yang ada. Beberapa hal yang perlu dilakukan oleh emerging antara lain, mengevaluasi kembali spesifikasi ingriedien dan titik-titik kendali kritis, mengembangkan program pengambilan contoh dan pemantauan lingkungan, serta menyesuaikan program pengambilan contoh produk. Dalam kaitannya dengan pengendalian kontaminan yang sengaja ditambahkan (intentional contamination), rencana HACCP perlu mencakup juga bahaya-bahaya yang telah diidentifikasi pernah secara sengaja dimasukkan dalam sistem produksi, serta mengidentifikasi dan mengevaluasi bahaya-bahaya lain yang diketahui atau yang diduga bisa secara sengaja dimasukkan sistem produksi.

Emerging pathogens and food contaminants important for food safety are inevitable issues. Enterohemorhagic E. coli, for example, is the latest one to cause fatality and economic loss in Europe while in China melamine is a very important adulaterant in powdered infant formula that has cost life and trade worldwide. This paper discusses the emergence of foodborne pathogens and contaminants in food system. The objective is to provide better understanding regarding the emerging foodborne pathogens and contaminants so that their emergence should be well anticipated by government, food industries as well as consumers. Use of risk analysis framework is the logical approach for government to produceappropriate food safety measures and policies. Meanwhile,food industry should take into precaution their existing food safety measures and revisit their HACCP plan. The most likely aspects to be reconsidered include re-evaluation of the specification for ingredients and critical control points, establishment of environmental monitoring and sampling, and adjustment of sampling plan. With respect to preventing intentional contaminations, HACCP plan should include hazards that may be intentionally introduced, identify and evaluate known or reasonably foreseeable hazards that may be associated with the facility.

 

Keywords

emerging pathogens; emerging contaminants; food safety; risk analysis

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