Pembangunan Ketahanan Ekonomi dan Pangan Perdesaan Mandiri Berbasis Nilai Tambah (Rural Economic and Food Security Development Based on Added Value Formation)

Tajuddin Bantacut
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Perdesaan adalah produsen sebagian besar hasil pertanian dan bahan pangan, tetapi belum mampu mandiri untuk memenuhi kebutuhan pangan dan kegiatan ekonominya. Salah satu penyebab utamanya adalah perekonomian perdesaan masih bertumpu pada produksi dan perdagangan produk primer yang nilainya rendah dan harganya tidak stabil. Nilai terbesar yang terkandung dalam hasil pertanian “diangkut” dan dimanfaatkan di perkotaan. Perdesaan kemudian menjadi wilayah pasar dari hasil olahan tersebut. Dalam perspektif inilah perdesaan harus dibangun menjadi pemasok bahan pangan olahan bagi perkotaan yang pada saat bersamaan mampu memenuhi kebutuhan pangan dan kegiatan ekonominya. Untuk itu, pangan dan ekonomi perdesaan harus bertumpu pada produksinya sendiri melalui pengembangan usaha pembentukan nilai tambah. Makalah ini bertujuan untuk (i) membahas pengertian dan kegiatan nilai tambah serta pangan berbasis sumberdaya lokal; (ii) menganalisis pengembangan usaha dan pangan perdesaan melalui program pengembangan masyarakat. Perhitungan nilai tambah dari kegiatan pengolahan hasil pertanian lokal menunjukkan bahwa perdesaan berpotensi untuk membangun kemandirian pangan sekaligus ekonomi. Oleh karena itu, perdesaan dapat dibangun melalui pengembangan kegiatan pengolahan hasil komoditas lokal berbasis masyarakat.

Being producer of most agricultural products, rural region has not been self-sufficient in staple food supply and economic activities. Most of rural economics rely on producing and trading of primary (fresh) products which value has been declining in terms of customer expense proportion. The “expensive” value containing in the products is transported to urban for further handling and processing. Then, rural region become costumer of those processed products. In this respect, rural development should be designed to be supplier fo urban population processed food and industrial raw material, and at the same time securing its own people staple food and economic activities. Rural staple food should firstly be based on its own available resources through added value creation activities. This paper discusses added value activities and local resource based food development. At the end, it presents several efforts to develop rural food sovereignty and local economic development through community empowerment program. Calculation added value of a commodity to several processed products shown that rural area has the potency to be independent in economic activities and food supply. Therefore, it is recommended that rural region shoud be developed to be community based product processing center.



rural economic; rural food security; added value

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