Antioxidant Activity of Pigmented Rice and Impact on Health

Arfina Sukmawati Arifin
| Abstract views: 115 | PDF views: 306 | PDF views: 41

Abstract

The high number of free radicals that are not balanced with the amount of antioxidants in the body triggers oxidative stress. Oxidative stress causes impaired vascular function, damage to proteins and lipids in membrane cell, and nucleic acid (DNA) mutations. Chronic cell damage has a negative effect on tissue that triggers various diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's, Parkinson's), cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, arteriosclerosis, and others), cataracts, retinal damage, maculopathy, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, stroke, diabetes mellitus , immunodepression, cancer, aging, hyperoxia, dermatitis, and others. The application of a healthy lifestyle for example by consuming food sources of bioactive compounds can minimize health risks. Rice is the staple food of the Indonesian people. Some types of rice contain red and black pigments which are known to have high antioxidant activity compared to white rice. The pigment comes from anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin. Various studies in vitro and in vivo prove that anthocyanin and proantocyanidine act as antioxidants and potency as a preventative for various diseases such as cardiovascular, diabetes mellitus, and etc.

Keywords

antioxidant, black and red rice, anthocyanin, proanthocyanidin

Full Text:

PDF PDF

References

Apak R, Gorinstein S, Böhm V, Schaich K.M, Özyürek M, Güçlü K. 2013. Methods of Measurement and Evaluation of Natural Antioxidant Capacity/ Activity (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry. Vol. 85 (5): 957-998.

Azis A, Izzati M, Haryanti S. 2015. Aktivitas Antioksidan dan Nilai Gizi dari Beberapa Jenis Beras dan Millet sebagai Bahan Pangan Fungsional Indonesia. Jurnal Biologi. Vol. 4 (1): 45–61.

Chaiyasut C, Sivamaruthi B.S, Pengkumsri N, Keapai W, Kesika P, Saelee M, Tojing P, Sirilun S, Chaiyasut K, Peerajan S, Lailerd N. 2017. Germinated Thai Black Rice Extract Protects Experimental Diabetic Rats from Oxidative Stress and Other Diabetes-Related Consequences. Pharmaceuticals. Vol. 10 (3): 2-16.

Chung S.I, Kang M.Y, Lee S.C. 2016. Inhibitory Effect of Germinated Pigmented Rice on Key Metabolic Enzymes Associated with Diabetes and Hyperglycemia. International Journal of Food and Nutritional Science. Vol. 5 (4): 32-40.

Cosomn U, Hettiarachchi P, Wanigasuriya K, Perera R. 2017. Glycemic and Lipid Metabolic Markers in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients after Consuming Red Pigmented Parboiled Rice as a Staple—A Clinical Trial. Food Science and Nutrition Studies. Vol. 1 (2): 122-134.

Dwiyanti G, Siswaningsih W, Aprilianti W.N. 2013. Aktivitas Antioksidan Ekstrak Beras Merah dan Beras Hitam Komersial serta Produk Olahannya. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Kimia dan Pendidikan Kimia V. Program Studi Pendidikan Kimia Jurusan PMIPA FKIP UNS, Surakarta.

Florence T M. 1995. The Role of Free Radicals in Disease. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmologists. Vol. 23 (1): 3–7.

Goufo P, Trindade H. 2013. Rice Antioxidants: Phenolic Acids, Flavonoids, Anthocyanins, Proanthocyanidins, Tocopherols, Tocotrienols, γ-Oryzanol, and Phytic Acid. Food Science & Nutrition. Vol. 2 (2): 75–104.

Huang D, Ou B, Prior R.L. 2005. The Chemistry behind Antioxidant Capacity Assays. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Vol. 53: 1841–56.

Imam M.U, Ishaka A, Ooi D.J, Zamri N.D.M, Sarega N, Ismail M, Esa N.M. 2014. Germinated Brown Rice Regulates Hepatic Cholesterol Metabolism and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Hypercholesterolaemic Rats. Journal of Functional Foods. Vol. 8 : 193–203.

Johansen J.S, Harris A.K, Rychly D.J, Ergul A. 2005. Oxidative Stress and The Use of Antioxidants in Diabetes: Linking Basic Science to Clinical Pratice. Cardiovascular Diabetology. Vol. 4 (5): 1–11.

Kruger M.J, Davies N, Myburgh K.H, Lecour S. 2014. Proanthocyanidins, Anthocyanins and Cardiovascular Diseases. Food Research International Journal. Vol. 59: 41–52.

Kasim E, Astuti S, Nurhidayat N. 2005. Karakterisasi Pigmen dan Kadar Lovastatin Beberapa Isolat Monascus purpureus. Biodiversitas. 6 (4): 245-247.

Mahantesh S.P, Gangawane A.K,Patil C.S. 2012. Free Radicals, Antioxidants, Diseases and Phytomedicines in Human Health : Future Perspects. World Research Journal of Medicinal & Aromatic Plants. Vol. 1 (1): 6–10.

Miguel M.G. 2011. Anthocyanins: Antioxidant and/or Anti-inflammatory Activities. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. Vol. 1 (06): 07-15.

Muraki I, Wu H, Imamura F, Laden F, Rimm E.B, Hu F.B, Willett W.C, Sun Q. 2015. Rice Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: Results from A Pooled Analysis of 3 U.S. Cohorts. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Vol. 101: 164-172.

Okonogi S, Kaewpinta A, Junmahasathien T, Yotsawimonwat S. 2018. Effect of Rice Variety and Modification on Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities. Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics. Vol. 12 (4): 206-213.

Ou B, Huang D, Hampsch-woodill M, Flanagan J.A, Deemer E.K. 2002. Analysis of Antioxidant Activities of Common Vegetables Employing Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) Assays : A Comparative Study. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Vol. 50: 3122–3128.

Petroni K, Landoni M, Tomay F, Calvenzani V, Simonelli C, Cormegna M. 2017. Proximate Composition, Polyphenol Content and Anti-inflammatory Properties of White and Pigmented Italian Rice Varieties. Universal Journal of Agricultural Research. Vol. 5(5): 312-321.

Pham-huy L.A, He H, Pham-huy C. 2008. Free Radicals, Antioxidants in Disease and Health. International Journal of Biomedical Science. Vol. 4 (2): 89–96.

Phaniendra A, Jestadi DB. 2015. Free Radicals : Properties , Sources , Targets , and Their Implication in Various Diseases. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry. Vol. 30 (1): 11–26.

Pinontoan A.R. 2015. Pengaruh Pemberian Ekstrak Beras Hitam (Oryza sativa L.) terhadap Kadar Low Density Lipoprotein pada Tikus Wistar (Rattus Norvegicus) yang Diberi Diet Prodislipidemia. http://fkm.unsrat.ac.id/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/JURNAL-Anastasia-Rosalin-Pinontoan.pdf [diakses 15 Desember 2018].

Pratiwi R, Purwestri Y.A. 2017. Black rice as a functional food in Indonesia. Functional Foods in Health and Disease. Vol. 7 (3): 182-194.

Prior R.L, Wu X, Schaich K. 2005. Standardized Methods for the Determination of Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolics in Foods and Dietary Supplements. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Vol. 53: 4290–4302.

Reis J.F, Monteiro V.V.S, Gomes R.D.S, do Carmo M.M, da Costa G.V, Ribera P.C, Monteiro M.C. 2016. Action mechanism and cardiovascular effect of anthocyanins: a systematic review of animal and human studies. Journal of Translational Medicine. Vol. 14 (315): 1-6.

Seawan N, Vichit W, Thakam A, Thitipramote N, Chaiwut P, Pintathong P, Thitilertdech N. 2013. Antioxidant Capacities, Phenolic, Anthocyanin and Proanthocyanidin Contents of Pigmented Rice Extracts Obtained by Microwave-Assisted Method. Suranaree Journal of Science and Technology. Vol. 21 (4): 301-306.

Suhartatik N, Karyantina M, Mustafa A. 2013. Aktivitas Antioksidan dan Kadar Antosianin Beras Berwarna yang Beredar di DIY dan Sekitarnya. Joglo (Jurnal Pertanian dan Pangan). Vol. 25 (2): 1–10.

Tantipaiboonwonga P, Pinthaa K, Chaiwangyena W, Chewonarinb T, Pangjitc K, Chumphukama O, Kangwand N, Suttajita M. 2017. Anti-hyperglycaemic and Anti-hyperlipidaemic Effects of Black and Red Rice in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats. ScienceAsia. Vol. 43: 281–288.

Valko M, Leibfritz D, Moncol J, Cronin M.T.D, Mazur M, Telser J. 2007. Free Radicals and Antioxidants in Normal Physiological Functions and Human Disease. International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology. Vol. 39 (1): 44–84.

Vichit W, Saewan N. 2015. Antioxidant Activities and Cytotoxicity of Thai Pigmented Rice. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. Vol. 7 (7): 329-334.

Walter M, Marchesan E. 2011. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Rice. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology. Vol. 54 (2): 371–77.

Wang Q, Han P, Zhang M, Xia M, Zhu H, Ma J, Hou M, Tang Z, Ling W. 2007. Supplementation of Black Rice Pigment Fraction Improves Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Status in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Vol. 16 (1): 295-301.

Wanti S, Andriani M.A.M, Parnanto N.H.R. 2015. Pengaruh Berbagai Jenis Beras terhadap Aktivitas Antioksidan pada Angkak oleh Monascus purpureus. Biofarmasi. Vol. 13 (1): 1-5

[WHO] World Health Organization. Noncommunicable Diseases Country Profiles 2018. Switzerland: WHO.

Widyawati P.S, Suteja A.M, Suseno T.I.P, Monika P, Saputrajaya W, Liguori C. 2014. Pengaruh Perbedaan Warna Pigmen Beras Organik terhadap Aktivitas Antioksidan. Agritech. Vol. 34 (4): 399–406.

Copyright (c) 2019 JURNAL PANGAN
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.