Pengaruh Silikat Terhadap Kekerasan Batang, Produktivitas Padi, Mutu Gabah dan Beras Yang Dihasilkan

Sarlan Abdulrachman

Abstract

Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian pupuk silikat terhadap peningkatan kekerasan batang, produktivitas dan mutu hasil padi. Dalam percobaan ini digunakan rancangan Split-plot dengan tiga kali ulangan. Perlakuan petak utama yaitu varietas (inbrida, hibrida, dan PTB) dan pupuk silikat sebagai anak petak. 1) tanpa pupuk Si (kontrol), (2) 50 ppm SiO2, (3) 100 ppm SiO2, (4) 200 ppm SiO2, dan (5) 400 ppm SiO2. Pupuk silikat diberikan satu kali saja pada semua perlakuan pada saat sebelum tanam. Cara pemberian pupuk yang lain mengikuti rekomendasi setempat (konsep PHSL). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa: (1) Kekerasan batang dipengaruhi oleh umur tanaman dan varietas. Semakin tua tanaman padi semakin keras batangnya, varietas inbrida Inpari 10 memiliki batang lebih lunak dibanding varietas hibrida Hipa 6 dan PTB B.105.33F-KN-11-1. Kekerasan batang tersebut dapat ditingkatkan dengan pemberian pupuk silikat. Pada tanah berkadar Si rendah seperti pada tanah alluvial Subang (76,46%) perlu diberikan 200 ppm SiO2. Sedangkan pada tanah berkadar SiO2 sedang seperti pada tanah andosol Kuningan (82,66%) hingga tinggi seperti pada tanah latosol Bogor (87,24%) cukup diberikan 50 ppm SiO2, (2) Rata-rata hasil produksi yang dicapai melalui pemberian pupuk silikat adalah 6,24 t/ha pada tanah alluvial, 6,71 t/ha pada tanah andosol, dan 7,23 t/ha pada tanah latosol. Dengan demikian ada kenaikan hasil produksi berturut-turut sekitar 6,45% untuk tanah alluvial, 6,6 % untuk tanah andosol, dan 7,05% untuk tanah latosol dibandingkan kontrol, dan (3) Pengaruh pemberian pupuk silikat terhadap mutu beras tergantung pada jenis tanahnya. Pada tanah alluvial, pemberian pupuk silikat hanya meningkatkan komponen mutu beras (transparancy) dari sekitar 1,4% menjadi 1,6%. Sedangkan pada tanah latosol, beras giling, whiteness dan milling degree meningkat masing-masing dari sekitar 68,9% menjadi 69,1%; 48,8% menjadi 50,3%; dan dari 129,9 menjadi 136,4.

The objective of this research is to look into the effect of silicate application on increasing stem hardness, productivity and quality of rice. These trials were caried out using Splitplot design with three replications. Variety treatments (inbrid, hybrid, and NPT) was placed as main plot, while silcate fertilizer was as sub plot, e.i. (1) without silicate fertilizer as a control, (2) +50 ppm SiO2, (3) +100 ppm SiO2, (4) +200 ppm SiO2, and (5) +400 ppm SiO2. Silicate was applied as a basal fertilizer, while another fertilizers were applied according to those technical recommendations. The results indicated that: (1) Stem hardness was depend on crops age and variety. The more crop age harder the stem was, inbred Impair 10 variety had less stem hardness compared to hybrid Hipa 6 variety and NPT B.105.33F-KN-11-1. The stem hardness could be increased by applying silicate fertilizer. Under low Si content like in the alluvial soil of Subang (74,46%), this soil required 200 ppm SiO2. While medium content of SiO2 like in andosol soil of Kuningan (82,66%) up to high content of SiO2 like in latosol soil of Bogor (87,24%), those soil required 50 ppm Si, (2) Average rice yield that was achieved by applying cilicate fertilizer were 6,24 t/ha at alluvial soil, 6,71 t/ha at andosol soil, and 7,23 t/ha of dry paddy at latosol soil. Therefore, the yield increase was 6,45% on alluvial soil, 6,67% on andosol soil, and 7,05% on latosol soil compared to control, and (3) Application of silicate fertilizer increased rice quality, but not to all soil types. On alluvial soil, transparency as a component of rice quality increased from 1,4% to 1,6%. While on latosol soil; milling yield rice, whiteness and milling degree were incresed from 68,9% to 69,1%; 48,8% to 50,3%; and from 129,9 to 136,4; respectivelly

 

Keywords

silicate; stem hardness; production and rice quality.

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References

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