Optimasi Rasio Pati Terhadap Air dan Suhu Gelatinisasi untuk Pembentukan Pati Resisten Tipe III pada Pati Sagu (Metroxylon sagu) (Ratio Optimization of Starch to Water and Gelatinization Temperature to Produce Resistant Starch Type III of Sago Starch (Metroxylon sagu))

I Gusti Putu Adi Palguna, Sugiyono Sugiyono, Bambang Haryanto
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Abstract

Pati resisten tipe III adalah salah satu tipe pati resisten yang terbentuk karena retrogradasi amilosa pati tergelatinisasi. Pati resisten tipe III memiliki efek fisiologis yang dapat bermanfaat untuk kesehatan diantaranya: efek kenyang lebih lama, mengontrol peningkatan glukosa darah, meningkatkan konsentrasi asam butirat feses, dan nilai indeks glikemik rendah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan kondisi optimum rasio pati terhadap air dan suhu gelatinisasi yang dapat menghasilkan kadar pati resisten tertinggi dari pati sagu (Metroxylon sagu). Dengan menggunakan response surface methodology dapat diketahui bahwa kondisi optimum rasio pati terhadap air adalah 1:2,23 dan suhu gelatinisasi pada 77oC pada satu kali siklus gelatinisasi dan retrogradasi dapat menghasilkan kadar pati resisten tertinggi sebesar 3,88 persen. Berdasarkan analisis ragam diketahui bahwa semakin banyak jumlah air yang digunakan semakin berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap peningkatan kadar pati resisten. Namun, peningkatan suhu gelatinisasi tidak memberikan pengaruh nyata terhadap peningkatan kadar pati resisten.

Resistant starch type III is one of the types of resistant starch formed by amylose retro gradation of gelatinized starch. This type has some physiological effects to health such as: longer satiety response, giving low glycemic index, improving the concentration of fecal butyric acid, and controlling the increase of blood glucose. The objective of this research was to develop optimum conditions ratio starch to water and gelatinization temperature in order to reach the highest level of resistant starch of sago starch (Metroxylon sagu). By using response surface methodology, it was found that optimum conditions: ratio starch to water was 1:2.23 and gelatinization temperature at 77oC produced the highest resistant starch content (3.88 percent). Based on the analysis of variance, it was found that the increase of ratio starch to water was significantly affected the increase resistant starch level. However, the increase of gelatinization temperature did not significantly affect the level of resistant starch.

 

Keywords

gelatinization; retro gradation; resistant starch; type III; sago; Metroxylon sagu

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